Anti-boycott laws have been challenged in federal court, including in Arkansas, Arizona, Georgia, Kansas, Maryland, and Texas. Four federal district courts have ruled that these states’ laws, all of which require contractors with the state to sign pledges that they don’t boycott Israel, are likely unconstitutional and that boycotts for Palestinian rights are protected by the First Amendment. To date, not a single anti-boycott law has been upheld on the merits. In many of these cases, however, state legislatures changed the law to exclude the plaintiffs, and moot the lawsuits.